2020). Oliver JE, Whitfield AE. German TL, Lorenzen MD, Grubbs N, Whitfield AE. Geminiviruses, such as beet curly top virus (BCTV), tobacco yellow dwarf virus (TYDV) and bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV), are DNA viruses that have been developed as efficient platforms for foreign protein expression (Regnard et al. Virology. Global status of tospovirus epidemics in diverse cropping systems: successes achieved and challenges ahead. Foxtail mosaic virus: a viral vector for protein expression in cereals. After a period of incubation, the infected SBPHs transmitted recombinant viruses to barley plants. Written by a team of international experts in the field, it provides a unique insight into how the field has developed, what problems are being addressed now and where applications may lead in the future. Reverse Genetics of RNA Viruses provides a comprehensive account of the very latest developments in reverse genetics of RNA viruses through a wide range of applications within each of the core virus groups including; positive sense, negative sense and double stranded RNA viruses. Multiplexed gene editing and protein overexpression using a Tobacco mosaic virus viral vector. © 2020 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Cauliflower mosaic virus is the first plant virus to be developed as vectors for expression of bacterial genes in 1984 (Brisson et al. 2008). At 15 dpi, 90% of the barley plants showed symptoms of chlorotic specks on leaves and stunted growth similar to those observed in wild-type virus-infected barley plants (Gao et al. Arch Virol. Annu Rev Virol. Chung HY, Lee HH, Kim KI, Chung HY, Hwang-Bo J, Park JH, et al. 2010; Chung et al. In addition, the VOX-based vectors have been widely used for functional characterization of unknown proteins in plant functional genomics studies (Zaidi and Mansoor 2017). Zhou et al. 2016;161:2291–7. Nat Plants. To improve accumulation of these core proteins and minireplicon derivatives, suppressors of RNA silencing (VSR) proteins, the barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) γb, tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) p19, and tobacco etch virus (TEV) HC-Pro, were combined into a binary vector to express together in single cells (Ganesan et al. 2008; Kormelink et al. Classical plant rhabdoviruses are non-segmented NSR viruses and consist of the Cytorhabdovirus and Nucleorhabdovirus genera according to their replication and morphogenesis sites on cytoplasm or nucleus. NLM 2019). 2007; Lindbo 2007; Jackson and Li 2016; Cody and Scholthof 2019; Ibrahim et al. Review Article. More than 90% of the plants regenerated from virus-infected tissues contained targeted and inheritable mutations (Ma et al. Science. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s42483-020-00068-5. Lindbo JA. Cao Q, Xu W-Y, Gao Q, Jiang Z-H, Liu S-Y, Fang X-D, et al. 2018; Jiang et al. Ibrahim A, Odon V, Kormelink R. Plant viruses in plant molecular pharming: toward the use of enveloped viruses. Gao Q, Yan T, Zhang Z-J, Liu S-Y, Fang X-D, Gao D-M, et al. Rhabdovirus genomes encode five structural proteins, including the nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G) and the large protein of viral polymerase (L) (Jackson et al. et al. 2015; Cody et al. Only a previous report in 2017 informed the TSWV S RNA synthesis by its RNA polymerase in yeast (Ishibashi et al. 2007;25:3018–21. Part of statement and Mol Plant-Microbe Interact. Pattnaik AK, Ball LA, Legrone A, Wertz GW. 2019). Ekaterina Minskaia* and Garry A. Luke. 1a) (Ganesan et al. Curr Opin Biotech. Sun K, Zhou X, Lin W, Zhou X, Jackson AO, Li Z. Matrix-glycoprotein interactions required for budding of a plant nucleorhabdovirus and induction of inner nuclear membrane invagination. Furthermore, the N, P, and L core proteins of SYNV were also co-expressed by agroinfiltration with A. tumefaciens harboring binary vectors.