We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. At this point in your study of chemistry, you should memorize the names, formulas, and charges of the most common polyatomic ions. Textbook content produced by OpenStax College is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license. Per- (short for “hyper”) and hypo- (meaning “under”) are prefixes meaning more oxygen atoms than -ate and fewer oxygen atoms than -ite, respectively. (b) copper(II) sulfate For each of the following compounds, state whether it is ionic or covalent. endobj The name and the formula usually begin with the element that is more to the left on the periodic table. For example, the ionic compound sodium oxalate is comprised of Na+ and \(\ce{C2O4^2-}\) ions combined in a 2:1 ratio, and its formula is written as Na2C2O4. Covalent bonding is an important and extensive concept in chemistry, and it will be treated in considerable detail in a later chapter of this text. For example, perchlorate is \(\ce{ClO4-}\), chlorate is \(\ce{ClO3-}\), chlorite is \(\ce{ClO2-}\) and hypochlorite is ClO−. Metals form positive ions (cations). If you are 13 years old when were you born? (A discussion of the theory supporting the favored status of noble gas electron numbers reflected in these predictive rules for ion formation is provided in a later chapter of this text.). Note the usefulness of the periodic table in predicting likely ion formation and charge (Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\)). The following ionic compounds are found in common household products. Example \(\PageIndex{2}\): Formation of Ions. The gemstone sapphire (Figure \(\PageIndex{4}\)) is mostly a compound of aluminum and oxygen that contains aluminum cations, Al3+, and oxygen anions, O2−. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. (* molecular have no charges, so NO crossing over!) So two elements from the right side of the periodic table, (a compound made up of only Nitrogen and Oxygen). Paul Flowers (University of North Carolina - Pembroke), Klaus Theopold (University of Delaware) and Richard Langley (Stephen F. Austin State University) with contributing authors. If you want to quickly find the word you want to search, use Ctrl + F, then type the word you want to search. Write the symbol for each ion and name them. endobj Download for free at http://cnx.org/contents/85abf193-2bd...a7ac8df6@9.110). (b) BaO wd�� ��Kݱ����� �/S��Hi���j�K[��5����M�~���Z�Ng*�z��T�5�!Q��nÚp}�0���̭�lN����Q _��H8�{� ]?�X���;��~�Ě�#��p�ÕL�|�Y\���kۈO���YB�΁�P@�H��BRx��Q �ЋF��$�y[�������M�n�B #��r��: The subscripts in this formula are not the smallest-possible whole numbers, as each can be divided by 2 to yield the empirical formula, NaCO2. What is the hink-pink for blue green moray? , meaning they have more electrons than the neutral atoms that are in the ion. This will be covered in more detail in the next module on nomenclature. Oxyanions are polyatomic ions that contain one or more oxygen atoms. We can often identify molecular compounds on the basis of their physical properties. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. An ion found in some compounds used as antiperspirants contains 13 protons and 10 electrons. (f) KI. (f) silicon dioxide, (a) barium chloride For example, sodium chloride melts at 801 °C and boils at 1413 °C. 4 0 obj Unlike [Se-2] While we can use the positions of a compound’s elements in the periodic table to predict whether it is ionic or covalent at this point in our study of chemistry, you should be aware that this is a very simplistic approach that does not account for a number of interesting exceptions. Magnesium and nitrogen react to form an ionic compound. (b) FeSO4 In solid form, an ionic compound is not electrically conductive because its ions are unable to flow (“electricity” is the flow of charged particles). The name and the formula usually begin with the element that is more to the left on the periodic table. JavaScript isn't enabled in your browser, so this file can't be opened. (b) Rb2O (e) P4O6 Show the formation of the following ionic compounds using electron-dot structures (Lewis structures). The # of valence electrons in each element will determine the formula for the ionic compound. Potassium (group 1) is a metal, and iodine (group 17) is a nonmetal; KI is predicted to be ionic. (d) TiCl4 dipotassium seleniu m(-2) anion. (e) HBr Note that there is a system for naming some polyatomic ions; -ate and -ite are suffixes designating polyatomic ions containing more or fewer oxygen atoms. (e) Mg2+, \(\ce{PO4^3-}\), (a) K+, O2− Paul Flowers (University of North Carolina - Pembroke), Klaus Theopold (University of Delaware) and Richard Langley (Stephen F. Austin State University) with contributing authors. (e) ammonium nitrate Unfortunately, the number of oxygen atoms corresponding to a given suffix or prefix is not consistent; for example, nitrate is \(\ce{NO3-}\) while sulfate is \(\ce{SO4^{2-}}\). Atoms of many main-group metals lose enough electrons to leave them with the same number of electrons as an atom of the preceding noble gas. @��~ Legal. From a list of almost 2000 names and formulas, students will be given the opportunity to practice their ability to name ionic compounds, given the formula, and determine the formula given the name. �`u �`��I��$`�HiL��@vŜ��~v.����_�T�h���LR�bkƬ���Jp��S1���F��78����h���� ��. For example, group 17 elements (one group left of the noble gases) form 1− ions; group 16 elements (two groups left) form 2− ions, and so on. (f) calcium acetate A polar covalent bond B. The name of a binary molecular compound ends in “ide”, just like the name of a binary ionic compound. Missed the LibreFest? [K+].[K+]. Hydrogen (group 1) is a nonmetal, and oxygen (group 16) is a nonmetal; H, Carbon (group 14) is a nonmetal, hydrogen (group 1) is a nonmetal, and chlorine (group 17) is a nonmetal; CHCl, Lithium (group 1) is a metal, and carbonate is a polyatomic ion; Li.