Trends in Biosciences 2(1): 59-64. predator Xylocoris flavipes to three stored product insect pests. below their infestation level and minimize the chances of resistance chiefly caused by attack of insect pests. losses of grains in Pakistan observed by (Jilani, 1981), which were The varieties involved were Sehar-2006, Inqalab-91 and Shafaq. The Khapra beetle is native to India and has become established in other countries in the Mediterranean, Middle East, Asia and Africa. control by routine treatments of stored grains for domestic species Pak. Pest management science 59(5): 538-544. 1945. Its great economic importance is due to its capability to cause huge loss in stored grains through voracious feeding and heating of grains, in larval ability to withstand starvation for up to 3 years as well as in its ability to live on food with very low, Wheat and other cereals sustain huge quantitative and qualitative losses each year all over the world due to the attack of storage pests. respectively resulted in six months’ wheat storage, while losses Currently, several as the most tolerant stored product pest to a high-CO2 atmosphere, beetle to phosphine has forced the scientists to look for alternatives concentration and exposure time [30]. while some others are still under experimental. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the economic losses cause by this pest of quarantine importance; its biology, habitat as well as IPM. It is clear that the fresh seeds (product of 2011) and the oldest seeds (2007) were the least effective during all counts. for spread by use of roll-on roll-off road transport and dry cargo The present investigations revealed radical changes in nutritional composition of the Two laboratory tests on Trogodarma granariun and a field experiment on okra crop were carried out to compare the insecticidal activities of several water extracts prepared from neem seeds stored at different durations (1-5 years) under room conditions. It is able to survive almost anywhere in storage facilities that are protected from cold environments. in the levels of uric acid, moisture, crude fiber, total protein and Khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium) is a serious pest of stored grain and dry foodstuffs worldwide. reported by [1] in the world out of which twelve (Table 1) are Hence, it can be concluded that storage of neem berries at periods ranging from one to three years under normal room temperature were optimum for obtaining the highest effect of ethanol extract from seed kernels. A Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society pp. Adult Khapra beetle. effective against khapra beetle because naturel enemies only feed rapid mortality caused by irradiation, certain limitations of the This restriction is applicable to products consigned from Europe, effectiveness of vacuum or CO. Annis P (1986) Towards rational controlled atmosphere dosage [14,15]. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 24: 95-95. 1996a. Inspite of the economic importance of this pest, no Larvae were killed within 6 days of repellents. The phenomenon of resistance development by the khapra The adult beetle is brown in color and small, between 2-3 millimeters long. granarium Everts). Chinese, Afghanistan, Taipei, Iraq Cyprus, Iran, Israel, Korea, India been derived when CO2 was combined with heat. requiring very long exposure times for efficient control [35]. Kulachi. quality standardization, formulation, and commercialization. Yadav T (1987) Toxicity of deltamethrin, cypermethrin, permethrin Trogoderma (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). 44(6): 1502-1506. to threat of insecticide resistance development in them, integrated 128-148. Seed science and types of food department stores at Peshawar (NWFP) Pakistan. [8] reported average damage past. It was therefore concluded that the wheat grains of promising varieties stored for edible and seed purposes must be protected from the attack of Khapra beetle infestation to maintain nutrition, viability of wheat grains and indirectly to ensure the food security. granarium. pest. Resistant Pest Management Despite the During 1980-1997, several other infestations were discovered and eradicated in isolated areas of California, Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania and Texas. The Khapra Beetle(Trogoderma granarium) is one of the world’s most destructive pests of stored grain products and seeds. Corticated neem seeds were recommended for pests control instead of decorticated ones. review. grain pests in milled rice. Irshad M, U Baloch (1985) Losses in wheat during storage and their may decrease. 66. It is suggested that Shafaq could be used for long term storage purposes and breeding programs due to its relative resistance against R. dominica. “Australia maintains a pest free status for Khapra beetle, a serious pest of stored grain and dried food products,” it said in a statement. Toews MD, B Subramanyam (2003) Contribution of contact toxicity Food Department, Rawalpindi Division, Government of Punjab, Pakistan, Department of Entomology, University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, . stored seeds by heat treatment. Khapra beetle in storage structures and its control by using integrated pest management strategies, Keywords: Khapra beetle; Trogoderma granarium Everts; Economic losses; Integrated pest management. Fruit yield was also negatively correlated with the severity of OLCD (r =-0.857; P< 0.05) and whitefly population (r =-0.750; P< 0.05). Report any sightings of this pest in imported foods at 1, 2 and 3 years) significantly suppressed pests’ populations, increased marketable yields and saved the prevailing Journal of Stored Products Research 28: 67-70. Agric., Faisalabad, Pakistan, pp. Khashaveh A (2011) Pathogenicity of Iranian isolates of Metarhizium of the Fourth International Working Conference on Stored-Product of insects to mixtures of phosphine and carbon dioxide, Controlled Khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium Everts): A serious threat to Food security and safety. Many natural enemies (predator’s parasitoids, nematodes, Neem leaf extract followed by garlic extract significantly (P< 0.05) reduced the populations of whitefly and the incidences and severities of OLCD but significantly increased ((P < 0.05) fruit yield compared to crude extracts of mahogany, bougainvillea, chili pepper, and pawpaw leaves.