It is believed that about 100 European Starlings released in New York in the early 1890s had successfully established populations in widespread parts of the Eastern United States by about 10 years later. Museum of Zoology. AgriLife Extension Service. In the nonbreeding season, both males and females have grayish black bills and feathers that are glossy black with whitish spots on the tips. The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source. Columbia University. Adult European starlings are 8 to 9 in. The population of this invasive bird species is now estimated at more than 200 million, and the species is found across the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. First noticed in Nebraska in 1930. Starlings are ground foragers that feed on a variety of insects in the soil as well as various seeds and fruits available. Female European starling in winter plumage. European starlings have a glossy black appearance and are commonly found in large flocks whose flying is synchronized. 0000006659 00000 n European starlings are in the same family as mynah birds and have some of the same vocal abilities. The .gov means it’s official.Federal government websites always use a .gov or .mil domain. They are found across the entire United States and compete with native species as well as destroy crops. Starlings are noisy birds making many clicks, whistles, rattles, squeaks, and sounds mimicking those from their environment or songs from other birds. �����~[(S �w�b��. Ruiz, B. Steves, A.H. Hines, and J.T. Squamata > Sturnidae > Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758, Synonyms: common starling, English starling, European starling – The reported distribution of this invasive species across the United States (Source:, Up-to-the-minute distribution maps and why they are important, – Historical distribution of European starlings after their introduction in North America. Male European starlings may be slightly larger than the females but otherwise are similar in appearance. Family: Sturnidae. Also, European starlings pose a direct danger to humans when large flocks impede or damage aircraft. ©Copyright New York Invasive Species Information 2020, New York State's gateway to science-based invasive species information, K-12 Aquatic Invasive Species Education Materials, Walnut Twig Beetle, Thousand Cankers Disease. 0000010283 00000 n Taxonomy: Scientific and Common Names for This Species, Native Bird Species That Resemble European Starlings, Additional Information, Biology, Control and Management Resources, Terrestrial (land-dwelling) invasive species, Aquatic (Water-Dwelling) Invasive Species, Public Outreach and Education Materials (Invasive species), nute distribution maps and why they are important,, How to report an invasive species sighting to EDDMapS, United States Land Grant University System. This work is supported by New Technologies for Agriculture Extension grant no. The damage caused by European starlings on the agricultural industry was estimated to be approximately $800 million per year at $5 per hectare (Pimentel et al. County Extension Offices – Find your county Extension office on this map provided by USDA. USDA. ���2�k� kY�$�����c+U�yY�"t���ً�(d�6�q!�np��us�>��y�[�L�=��`�$Qq��x���V��*��M�ETJN^�*���� �I-9O�{E7�xk���M�`�yA��0;J�1��C:�2"���d���9ͧl���xL�9�|�!�]nv����h�`���E5�%L�����i���ƽ>ʽ�5�B�T��#F)�/��`��.㺓��-t(�v!|�4���}���|��|�N�N�1fH�eL��"B�u�X�q�T,ո/���Ly��m�G�h����G�N��\r/:�A�W��6Ze {]5Α_�1��]Te����Ɉ��*�C Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management. Tweet; Prev. Invasion Biology Introduced Species Summary Project - Columbia University. endstream endobj 29 0 obj <> endobj 30 0 obj <>/Type/Page>> endobj 31 0 obj <> endobj 32 0 obj <> endobj 33 0 obj <> endobj 34 0 obj <> endobj 35 0 obj <> endobj 36 0 obj <>stream University of Nebraska - Lincoln. They weigh about 2 to 3 oz. Common Name: European Starling, Common Starling, Purple-winged Starling. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. They were released in New York City in 1890 and 1891 by an individual who wanted to introduce to the United States all of the birds mentioned in Shakespeare’s works. Cavity-nesting native birds, such as woodpeckers and bluebirds, are especially at risk. University of Nebraska - Lincoln. Females can lay about four to seven eggs two or three times a year. 2007). �@�g��w�10(Ώ5��qE{ihi X����}L����gr)^hx�ԑ�;���}C{�� n``� �HL4�& 20�����`�u�E4�q*�L�7[r�c� ��,��*�f`�'��� @� ��1g Snapshot : European starlings are a remarkably successful invasive species known to compete with native bird species for nest cavities. They're Taking Over Starlings. Figure 1. (20 to 23 cm) long and have a wingspan of 12 to 16 in. In the breeding season, their bills are yellow, and their legs are reddish. If a plane flies through a large flock of starlings, the birds can get caught in the jet engines causing damage to the aircraft as well as pose a hazard to humans. This is usually mild but in rare cases has been known to cause blindness and/or death. Center for Environmental Research and Conservation. 0000003304 00000 n The first recorded release of the birds was in 1890 in New York City’s Central Park. H��WKO9�ϯ�m�+��W��܆,���`�D{@��`H���)��v S�$$�8 ��S���\U���=�B[&�_Y�\N$ۂ�b�~b�r�����'�l}6�e_��)�f���uF�}���V��.' Fish and Wildlife Service. National Invasive Species Information Center, Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage: European Starlings and Their Control (PDF | 759 KB), The Quiet Invasion: A Guide to Invasive Species of the Galveston Bay Area - European Starling, National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS): Chesapeake Bay Introduced Species Database -, Wildlife Damage Management - Starlings and Blackbirds, Field Guide: Invasive - European Starling, Invasive Terrestrial Animals: European Starling (, Starling Management in Agriculture (Aug 1998) (PDF | 692 KB), Introduced Species Summary Project - European Starling, Texas Breeding Bird Atlas - European Starling. Fofonoff, P.W., G.M. This invasive species can be identified by looking for the characteristics described in the paragraphs that follow. Invasive species routinely cause extinctions – and have been long before some colonist imported his first Cane Toad. Carlton. were negatively impacted by starling presence. 2003. European starlings are one of the most successful and widespread invasive species in the world. Brought into the United States from Europe. Marine Invasions Research Lab. The introduction of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in New York City in 1890 and 1891 resulted in their permanent establishment in North America. 0000009130 00000 n European starlings are native to Europe and in parts of Asia and Africa. To prevent further spread of European starlings, eggs and nests can be destroyed before the nestlings are able to fledge. Robin-sized birds weighing about 3.2 ounces. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. In 1890, approximately 100 birds were brought to Central Park in an effort to have all birds mentioned in Shakespeare's work live in New York—leading to a population of 200 million starlings … Museum of Zoology. (60 to 96 g). 0000001859 00000 n %PDF-1.6 %���� First noticed in Nebraska in 1930. Before sharing sensitive information online, make sure you’re on a .gov or .mil site by inspecting your browser’s address (or “location”) bar. Or, to display all related content view all resources for European Starling. Available nesting sites are reduced not only by human activity but also by the cavity-nesting European starling population. Key Words: agricultural damage, disease, European starling, invasive species, livestock, Sturnus vulgaris , urban wildlife. The https:// means all transmitted data is encrypted — in other words, any information or browsing history that you provide is transmitted securely. Cavity-nesting native birds, such as woodpeckers and bluebirds, are especially at risk from competition with this invasive species. 0000000696 00000 n 2000). Spread by reproduction during the spring and summer. Managing Vertebrate Invasive Species – USDA National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) Symposia, Stakeholder announcements – Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Wildlife Services, Species Profiles – USDA National Invasive Species Information Center (NISIC), Bird Guide – Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Cornell University, EDIS Publication – University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) Extension, The Birds of North America Online – Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Cornell University, Animal Diversity Web – University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, Global Invasive Species Database – Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG), Nonnatives – Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. Texas A&M University. x�b```��,��x�(� The good news is that not all introduced birds cause extensive harm. Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Institution. They were recently found to damage ripening corn. 2003). Starlings look similar to blackbirds and have a short, square tail with a slender, yellow beak. EDDMapS – Report an invasive species to EDDMapS. Starlings are now found across the United States, in the Bahamas, Central America, Yucatan Peninsula, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and Cuba.