Judith Leyster, one of only two women to be admitted to the 17th century painters' guild, was also a noted genre painter, specializing in musicians, children at play, and merrymaking couples. Antwerp, a major economic hub, like other cities in modern age Belgium had joined in the rebellion against Spain but was conquered by Spanish forces in 1585. Overlooked by art historians for centuries, the provocative painter Judith Leyster was an important figure in the Dutch Golden Age. The Dutch Republic also became home to other refugees, including the Protestant Huguenots from France, Sephardic Jews from Spain and Portugal, and the Pilgrims from Great Britain, and a thriving and tolerant cultural life developed. "Dutch Golden Age Painting Movement Overview and Analysis". This dominant element of Dutch art developed into a number of subtypes of which floral still life was the most popular. Fabritius's few, but iconic paintings show the Dutch Golden Age painter a master of compositional illusionism and narrational ambiguity. cat., Prefectural Museum of Art, Yamaguchi, 1994. He pioneered a three-tone etching process and an early method of intaglio color printing to create what were called "printed paintings." As a result, many craftsmen and wealthy merchants went north to Amsterdam, creating an influx of businesses and skilled labor. His influence on artists continued throughout the 19th century, affecting Vincent van Gogh, Auguste Rodin, and the American Thomas Eakins, and into the 20th century where he had an impact on the work of Pablo Picasso, Frank Auerbach, and Francis Bacon, and countless others. A number of noted subtypes were developed under the umbrella of Dutch still life painting, which includes vanitas, floral still life, ontbijtjes ("breakfast pieces")," and Pronkstilleven (an ostentatious display of food and expensive tableware). The Rococo was a far reaching artistic movement associated with ornate decoration that included architecture, painting, sculpture, music, interior design, landscape design, and theater. He also innovatively reworked plates by scraping away etched areas and then redrawing with drypoint. The Dutch Golden Age spanned 150 years (1600-1750), and exhibitions in museums throughout Amsterdam bring the era’s characteristics of prosperity and greatness into focus. Similarly, Rembrandt's dramatic focus on a windmill in The Mill (1645-1648) evoked an identifying symbol of the Netherlands. The terms of the city's surrender included the provision that any Protestants had to leave the city within two years. Dutch Golden Age painting thrived during this time—it is said that around seven million works of art were produced during this period. He influenced many subsequent Golden Age painters including Adriaen van Ostade, Adriaen Brouwer, and Judith Leyster. Regarded as one of the foremost masters of Dutch painting, Vermeer specialized in domestic interior scenes with balanced compositions, soft-focus elements, and luminous effects. Religion played a leading role in the conflict, and both the Dutch Reformed church and a rising sense of Dutch nationalism informed the Golden Age. The most important subtypes, as they influenced later art movements and artists, were cityscapes, landscapes with animals in the foreground, and Italianate landscapes. The artists most noted for floral still life included the females Maria van Oosterwijck, Rachel Ruysch, and Maria Sibylla Meria. Art too took on independent directions, developing an emphasis on secular subjects, depicted not with Catholic grandeur, but emphasizing ordinary human life and realistic treatments. Leiden, a Dutch city, known for its university that played an important theological role, became an early artistic center for vanitas painting, as seen in Harmen Steenwyck 's Still Life: An Allegory of the Vanities of Human Life (c. 1640). Using different colors of paper, which he painted before printing, then subsequently painting the print itself with watercolor, he created luminous landscapes keyed to the atmosphere and light of the time of day. Frans Hals was an early pioneer of Dutch Golden Age painting, both in his portraiture and his genre work. He treated the plate like a canvas, leaving ink on the plate to vary different impressions of the same etching. Jan Bruegel the Elder, son of Pieter Bruegel, was an early pioneer of the floral still life, in works like his Flowers in a Wooden Vessel (1606-1607). Due to the extraordinary quality of the art produced, the 17th century became known as the Golden Age of Dutch painting and its artists exerted a huge influence on representational art across Europe. Rare or desired objects obtained by trade were often included, amongst a plethora of objects including expensive dishware, rare and common fruits and flowers, food delicacies, and game, all symbolizing a rich lifestyle. While in the early 1600s there was a demand for Biblical scenes, by the mid-1600s the market was dominated by portraits, landscapes, still lifes, and genre works. World trade was the engine that drove Dutch prosperity, as the Dutch East India Company, the first multinational corporation with shares that established the first stock exchange, was created in 1602. They are … This can best be seen on his most famous work Girl With a … Dutch Golden Age Painting or 17 th Century Genre painting shares characteristics with Baroque such as realism and chiaroscuro, but lacked the sheer spectacle and idealization common in the Baroque movement. The category also allowed for painting the nude, and his works like Bathsheba Holding King David's Letter (1654) are the few nude masterpieces of the era. Returning to Utrecht, they reinterpreted Caravaggio's genre scenes of musicians, gypsies, or card-players, as seen in Dirck van Baburne's The Lute Player (1622), which influenced Frans Hals and Judith Leyster, among others. His work in genre was equally pioneering, as shown in his Yonker Ramp and His Sweetheart (1623), depicting a cavalier and his sweetheart in a moment of merriment. The Dutch Golden Age began to decline with the start of the Franco-Dutch War, when the French invaded the Netherlands in 1672. Spices, Chinese porcelain, Japanese vessels, and rare botanical specimens became part of a prosperous lifestyle. The "idealized composite of the world taken in at a single Olympian glance," as described by art historian Simon Schama, was often employed within a Biblical or historical context. Drawing upon the Northern European tradition of printmaking, the noted printmakers of the Dutch Golden Age were Hercules Segers, Jacob van Ruisdael, and, towering above almost all printmakers of the era, Rembrandt. Madlyn Millner Kahr, Dutch Painting in the Seventeenth Century , … However, in general the works of many Dutch masters, including Rembrandt, Hals, and Vermeer fell out of favor in the late 17th through 18th centuries. Breakfast pieces are some of the most noted artistically, due to their emphasis on composition and the treatment of light. He emphasized a character-capturing moment and the employment of natural light depicted with a visible brushstroke to convey vitality. During the 17 th century, driven by new freedom from Spanish Catholic rule, the Dutch Republic experienced a surge in economic and cultural prominence. In 1568 the movement toward Dutch independence began with the religious rebellion of the Protestant Seven Provinces (modern day Netherlands) against the Catholic rule of Hapsburg Spain, which launched the Eighty Years' War. It was incredibly detailed for the most part.